Research is often used to drive meaning out of coaching protocols. Sometimes research is vindicated, sometimes it’s vilified. One important to understand that math is the language of science, and this is especially true with athletics and sports performance. Often the biochemistry is just descriptive, but the tests come down to simple math, making comparison easy. What research can we trust? Anything that is clear and well designed. Not much has changed since the sixties and seventies, and from the looks of the programs the Jamaicans used last year 95% of it can be traced to the 1960s. Sports medicine has changed the most, but elite sprinters will date models, wear sunglasses at meets, dance at clubs till all hours, and will battle the clock for 100m. Progress is measured by refinement of what has proven to work time after time.