Sprints heading, P 3 of 58 ” What is your typical week for 100/200 training?” and
P 11 of 58 “Setup w/out Intensive Tempo for 100-400m Runners” are two past forum headings that discuss typical 100/200 training schemes.
Brent McFarlane (“The Science of Hurdling and Speed”) has a table called “Energy System Overview” that more or less defines components of training with Intensive Tempo at 80% to 90% lasting from 40 seconds to 2 minutes or distances up to 600m; Extensive Tempo at 60% to 80% lasting from 40 seconds to 2 minutes or distances up to 600m; Continuous Tempo at 40% to 60% lasting longer than 2 minutes and distance “long”. The other variable of course is the amount of rest, but that is the case with any component. The overall point is you are dealing with various training energy systems and “what” supplies the energy you need. Relates to intensity and how long you can function at that intensity, which in turn relates to competition distance(s).
The reason there is or appears to be little consensus on periodization is that “everyone” will have different goals or competitions they place priority on but what it amounts to is that you look down the road at what is most important to you “fix” a date and then begin working backward until you are much more current. That will give you a rough idea as to how the intervening time will need to be split up in terms of how long you can spend doing what phase (General Prep, Specific Prep, Competition etc.) once the rough outline is done, you more or less repeat the process but now planning each smaller unit of time. If you are looking at overall calendars expect time components to show as various “cycles” such as microcycle, mesocycle, macrocycle since it is not necessarily the case that training periods or blocks will correspond exactly to weeks or months though the time frames are often very similar since training often has to fit within the time conventions of the general population.
The potential difficulty is the need to understand that almost any aspect involved is on some sort of continuum, hence the percentages relating to intensity but also the range of run distances that “define” say Speed Endurance 1 (McFarlane as 150 to 300m, used as I happen to have the book at hand) and that, as Mike Young has mentioned, the distances and intensities at the edges of the definitions overlap PLUS specificity of definition varies somewhat from athlete to athlete. So for a beginner, 12 years old “Speed” by strict definition in terms of distance will not likely last 60m which is often a maximum distance given for speed work whereas for an Olympic/world class athlete the definition fits.
Track v. Weights: athletes I am now coaching, anywhere from 5 days of track and 3 of weights to 3 days of track and 5 of weights but as above both of those are on a continuum so intensity/density etc. can cause a lot of variation.