To Jump Far, Run Fast
To jump far, it is important to consider the kinematics and kinetics of the event. There are many ways to jump far, but the best jumpers display similar forces, angles, positions, and velocities. Jumping far is heavily dependent on the takeoff velocity and vertical forces applied at takeoff (Beres, Csende, Lees, & Tihanyi, 2014). These two factors are strongly correlated with far jump distances(Lees, Graham-Smith, & Fowler, 1994).
Takeoff velocity is largely dependent on the athlete?s ability to accelerate to a maximum velocity during the run up of the long jump(Graham-Smith & Lees, 2005). If the athlete is unable to achieve a sprinting velocity of 10 m/s, it is unlikely that they will be able to jump over 8 meters in the long jump (Linthorne, 2008). From a purely mechanical point of view, if flight time were to stay the same and takeoff velocities increased from one trial to the next, the farthest jump would occur in the trial with the higher takeoff velocity. This principle underpins the importance of sprint speed in the long jump, and the importance of the kinetics and kinematics of high speed running.
During the initial steps of the run up, the athlete is applying very large horizontal forces (Morin et al., 2015). These initial steps function to put the athlete in the appropriate position to continue to accelerate later in the run up. Ideally, the athlete projects out with an appropriate degree of body lean. This body lean functions to assist in balance and applying large horizontal forces (Kugler & Janshen, 2010; Morin et al., 2015). This angle will progressively increase as the athlete reaches higher velocities. The reason this occurs is to allow the athletes to balance themselves as they achieve higher velocities, and to allow them to apply large vertical forces over increasingly shorter periods of time (K. P. Clark & Weyand, 2015; Weyand, Sternlight, Bellizzi, & Wright, 2000a). It is important to recognize that several shifts in kinetics and kinematics occur as an athlete accelerates to maximal velocity. The first factor to consider is stride length. This is the distance from one ground contact to the next, and it should increase in distance as the athlete achieves higher and higher velocities. Additionally, ground contact time should decrease as the athlete accelerates (Weyand et al., 2000a). Initially, ground contact time will be relatively long to optimize the force-velocity relationship, but decrease as the athlete achieves maximal velocity (Kenneth P. Clark & Weyand, 2014). If the athlete is on the ground too long, they are likely increasing breaking forces or increasing the amount of time required for the recovery leg to be repositioned in front of the body during flight (Weyand et al., 2000a). This would decrease stride frequency, or the number of strides occurring in one second. During upright sprinting, the limiting factor in running fast appears to be vertical force production (Weyand et al., 2000a).
This isn?t to say that horizontal forces aren?t important, but the difference between elite and sub elite sprinters appears to be the amount of vertical force they apply, and the time it takes to produce this force (Morin et al., 2015). Better sprinters are characterized by a longer acceleration. This acceleration can only be accomplished through the ability to apply horizontal forces that allow them to accelerate in spite of two variables: their more upright body position and the ground contact location relative to their center of mass that is less mechanically advantageous to applying horizontal force, and the insanely short ground contact times occurring at higher sprinting velocities (Brughelli, Cronin, & Chaouachi, 2011; Kenneth P. Clark & Weyand, 2014; Kugler & Janshen, 2010). The fastest long jumpers are able to overcome these two obstacles deeper into the run up (Young, 2015).
In summary, to run fast the athlete should see a progressive rise in body lean every step, a decrease in ground contact time, an increase in flight time, a shift from horizontal pushes to vertical pushes, an increase in stride length, and an increase in stride frequency (Weyand, Sternlight, Bellizzi, & Wright, 2000b). These factors are incredibly important in long jump, as there is strong correlation with takeoff velocity and long jump performance (Lees et al., 1994).
Arampatzis, A., Br?ggemann, G.-P., & Metzler, V. (1999). The effect of speed on leg stiffness and joint kinetics in human running. Journal of Biomechanics, 32(12), 1349?1353. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00133-5
Bc Elliott, & Ba Blanksby. (1978). The synchronization of muscle activity and body segment movements during a running cycle. Medicine and Science in Sports, 11(4), 322?327.
Beres, S., Csende, Z., Lees, A., & Tihanyi, J. (2014). Prediction of jumping distance using a short approach model/Predvidanje daljine skoka koristenjem modela kratkog zaleta. Kinesiology, 46(1), 88+.
Bridgett, L. A., & Linthorne, N. P. (2006). Changes in long jump take-off technique with increasingrun-up speed. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(8), 889?897. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500298040
Brughelli, M., Cronin, J., & Chaouachi, A. (2011). Effects of running velocity on running kinetics and kinematics. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(4), 933?939.
Cavagna, G. A. (1977). Storage and utilization of elastic energy in skeletal muscle. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 5(1), 89?130.
Clark, K. P., & Weyand, P. G. (2014). Are running speeds maximized with simple-spring stance mechanics? Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(6), 604?615. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00174.2014
Clark, K. P., & Weyand, P. G. (2015). Sprint running research speeds up: a first look at the mechanics of elite acceleration. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 25(5), 581?582. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12520
Comfort, P., Allen, M., & Graham-Smith, P. (2011). Kinetic Comparisons During Variations of the Power Clean: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(12), 3269?3273. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182184dea
Dyson, G. H., Woods, B. D., & Travers, P. R. (1986). The mechanics of athletics. Holmes & Meier Publishers.
Farley, C. T., & Gonz?lez, O. (1996). Leg stiffness and stride frequency in human running. Journal of Biomechanics, 29(2), 181?186. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(95)00029-1
Graham-Smith, P., & Lees, A. (2005). A three-dimensional kinematic analysis of the long jump take-off. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(9), 891?903. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400022169
Hay, J. G. (1993). Citius, altius, longius (faster, higher, longer): The biomechanics of jumping for distance. Journal of Biomechanics, 26, 7?21. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(93)90076-Q
Hay, J. G., Miller, J. A., & Canterna, R. W. (1986). The techniques of elite male long jumpers. Journal of Biomechanics, 19(10), 855?866. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(86)90136-3
Jonhagen, S., Nemeth, G., & Eriksson, E. (1994). Hamstring Injuries in Sprinters The Role of Concentric and Eccentric Hamstring Muscle Strength and Flexibility. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(2), 262?266. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659402200218
Komi, P. V. (1973). Measurement of the force-velocity relationship in human muscle under concentric and eccentric contractions. In Biomechanics III (pp. 224?229). Karger Publishers. Retrieved from https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/393754
Kugler, F., & Janshen, L. (2010). Body position determines propulsive forces in accelerated running. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(2), 343?348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.07.041
Kulas, A. S., Schmitz, R. J., Shultz, S. J., Watson, M. A., & Perrin, D. H. (2006). Energy absorption as a predictor of leg impedance in highly trained females. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 22(3), 177.
Kyr?l?inen, H., Avela, J., & Komi, P. V. (2005). Changes in muscle activity with increasing running speed. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(10), 1101?1109. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021575
Lees, A., Graham-Smith, P., & Fowler, N. (1994). A Biomechanical Analysis of the Last Stride, Touchdown, and Takeoff Characteristics of the Men?s Long Jump. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 10(1). Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=10658483&AN=20725450&h=2O8HcqCaghUSSkCdlIVBGwqHxHADHuuPEFF3DVbZmKCD6JcbTVyqg4xhIftaSd6hRkYBf32CFeqXlQOqzLPLQw%3D%3D&crl=c
Lian, ?. B., Engebretsen, L., & Bahr, R. (2005). Prevalence of Jumper?s Knee Among Elite Athletes From Different Sports A Cross-sectional Study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(4), 561?567. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546504270454
Linthorne, N. P. (2008). Biomechanics of the long jump. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1-MV1dHAHXQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA340&ots=r9oAp0rDV-&sig=wVV9egHgrgrrRw7_ywkZq0_QIBg
Linthorne, N. P., Guzman, M. S., & Bridgett, L. A. (2005). Optimum take-off angle in the long jump. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7), 703?712. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410400022011
Makaruk, H., Porter, M., Starzak, M., & Szymczak, E. (2016). An Examination of Approach Run Kinematics in Track and Field Jumping Events. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism, 23(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/pjst-2016-0009
Mayhew, J. L., Bird, M., Cole, M. L., Koch, A. J., Jacques, J. A., Ware, J. S., ? Fletcher, K. M. (2005). Comparison of the backward overhead medicine ball throw to power production in college football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(3), 514?518.
McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2010). Exercise physiology: nutrition, energy, and human performance (7th ed). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Morin, J.-B., Slawinski, J., Dorel, S., S?ez de Villareal, E., Couturier, A., Samozino, P., ? Rabita, G. (2015). Acceleration capability in elite sprinters and ground impulse: Push more, brake less? Journal of Biomechanics, 48(12), 3149?3154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.07.009
Prampero, P. E. di, Botter, A., & Osgnach, C. (2014). The energy cost of sprint running and the role of metabolic power in setting top performances. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(3), 451?469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-3086-4
Radcliffe, J., & Farentinos, R. (2015). High-Powered Plyometrics, 2E. Human Kinetics. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Z1fHBwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PR1&dq=high+powered+plyometrics&ots=IxMw-tHDvX&sig=4RhzfK4est9an8HyBJpWaRLemiE
Stockbrugger, B. A., & HAENNEL, R. G. (2003). Contributing factors to performance of a medicine ball explosive power test: a comparison between jump and nonjump athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(4), 768?774.
West, D. J., Cunningham, D. J., Bracken, R. M., Bevan, H. R., Crewther, B. T., Cook, C. J., & Kilduff, L. P. (2013). Effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration in professional rugby union players: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(4), 1014?1018. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182606cff
Weyand, P. G., & Davis, J. A. (2005). Running performance has a structural basis. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208(14), 2625?2631. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.01609
Weyand, P. G., Sternlight, D. B., Bellizzi, M. J., & Wright, S. (2000a). Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(5), 1991?1999.
Weyand, P. G., Sternlight, D. B., Bellizzi, M. J., & Wright, S. (2000b). Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(5), 1991?1999.
Yu, B., Queen, R. M., Abbey, A. N., Liu, Y., Moorman, C. T., & Garrett, W. E. (2008). Hamstring muscle kinematics and activation during overground sprinting. Journal of Biomechanics, 41(15), 3121?3126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.09.005
Zatsiorsky, V. M., & Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Science and practice of strength training. Human Kinetics. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=QWSn4iKgNo8C&oi=fnd&pg=PR8&dq=science+and+practice+of+strength+training&ots=v4daRhSECu&sig=PyOA-0isKf6P47uXwRNE9cT5Hh4